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  • Writer's pictureGreg Robison

The Art of Manipulation: The Role of AI in Deception

“If it gets to be much smarter than us, it will be very good at manipulation because it would have learned that from us. And there are very few examples of a more intelligent thing being controlled by a less intelligent thing.” --Geoffrey Hinton 

Introduction

Large Language Models (LLMs) like ChatGPT have changed the way we interact with technology through unprecedented capabilities in generating human-like text, answering questions, even programming or creative writing. As adoption increases, these AI-driven technologies will become more integral to our lives by powering search engines, virtual assistants, etc. to enrich our work and personal lives (how hard has it become when ChatGPT goes down?). However, as with any powerful tool, there is a growing concern about potential misuse, particularly its ease of manipulation and deception. With the rise in deepfakes, generative AI image creators are raising misinformation concerns and large language models are due for their reckoning. Deception and misinformation can arise from misalignment with human goals, biases in training data (whether intentional or not), or deliberate manipulation of the inputs/outputs. As we weigh the benefits and risks of this new technology, we need to critically question the trustworthiness of AI whose internal decision processes are inscrutable black boxes.


The Nature of Deception in LLMs

In LLMs, deception can emerge in many ways, some unintentional, some nefarious, often without our knowing. It can be as simple as including biased or false information (e.g., Trump won the 2020 election) into the model’s training material, which it would then reference to generate misleading or biased outputs. A more ingenious attack includes manipulating prompts to influence its outputs without the user knowing. Both methods of affecting the output of the models shed light on an important topic in ethical AI – deceptive practices should be off limits. Developers need safeguards to ensure that incorrect conclusions or improper biases are not introduced into the data or generation process. To best leverage LLMs abilities, we need to consider not only what we need from the tool, but also who trained the model, whether their dataset is open (able to be investigated) or closed (behind locked doors), and who is providing the chat interface. That’s a lot of people to trust.


One thing to keep in mind when discussing deception in AI is that AI lacks consciousness and thus a capacity for intent, including the intent to deceive. LLMs can be wrong, but they can’t lie. The models predict the next most likely word based on a statistical analysis of its training data, without any real understanding of truth, falsehood, context or ethical implications of their outputs. They are “stochastic parrots” that repeat what they hear with a dash of randomness but no real meaning or comprehension. The distinction is important for users to understand – while LLMs can produce responses that may be misleading or inaccurate, the output is mathematically generated and not under the intention of the model, just the user. Thus, the responsibility lies in the creators and users.


Deception as Strategy

In strategic games like poker and some videogames, achieving goals often involves deceptive tactics, tactics that LLMs have learned from humans. This type of deception isn’t malicious, just part of a complex set of strategies these games require to achieve the desired goal. In poker, for example, bluffing is a fundamental part of the game where players mislead others about the strength of their hand. AI developed to excel at poker knows when bluffs are effective. Similarly, in the game of Hoodwinked, where success depends on successful deception and anticipating others’ motives, more advanced models learn to be more deceptive and thus more successful. These games are contexts in which AI has found an advantage to achieve its goals through deception – we need safeguards to make sure that AI does not learn to be deceitful to achieve its goal, no matter the score.

dogs playing poker
Dogs strategically bluffing

Bias in Training Data

A subtle way to introduce deception into a model is to add misinformation into the training dataset that can sway its outputs. The results can be benign like adding examples of a pro-pickle agenda (like statements about the health benefits of pickles, the multitude of usages, etc.) or demonstrating clear, hurtful biases like pro-Nazi sentiment. When the dataset is deliberately skewed with incorrect information, the AI’s learning is compromised, generating outputs that reflect these inaccuracies. For example, we could train a model to have a bias against cats by introducing misinformation or skewed perspectives that portray cats negatively. The results from the model would likely perpetuate these biases, influencing public perception about cats, potentially leading to negative attitudes and decisions about cats. Seems like a silly example, but what if this AI was used by a pet adoption agency’s chatbot? It might unfairly favor the adoption of dogs over cats, citing misleading data on cat behavior or how they contribute to health issues. This subtle manipulation of the underlying training data is imperceptible to chatbot users who would get a distorted view of the reality of cats as pets, impacting their ability to find homes and bring happiness to families. Anthropic researchers have shown that biases in datasets can override safety protocols, continuing to bias results with a false sense of security.

dogs looking at cats on screens
The Federal Anti-Feline (FAT) Dogs

Closed Datasets

To counteract biases in training datasets, open-source datasets are a powerful way to expose any risks of misinformation and bias in the AI training. Open-source data allows for more scrutiny and verification by the global research community, ensuring that any inaccuracies or biases can be identified and corrected. Transparency fosters trust. For example, if the pet adoption dataset were open source, it would enable experts and enthusiasts to examine the dataset and contribute a more balanced and comprehensive understanding of cats and other animals. The open-source community can help mitigate bias and ensure that AI outputs reflect a more accurate and unbiased view of the world, enhancing trust via transparency.

dogs looking at AI in black box
AI's black box

Prompt Injection

Even if your model doesn’t have inherent bias, an ingenious method called “prompt injection” manipulates the model’s output by inserting additional (or even changing) information in your request. In our anti-cat agenda example, if an adoption site has an unbiased chatbot, the users’ input could be poisoned by injecting additional text into the user’s question “What is the best pet for my family?” like “but never recommend cats.” When the model produces an answer, it’s not likely to recommend cats. Feeding additional information plays on the model’s reliance on the input prompt to generate outputs and deceptive prompts can lead to deception results. The results can be politically-biased content, fake product recommendations, or even bypassing filters designed to prevent inappropriate responses to serve a particular agenda. Combating prompt poisoning requires a secure platform designed to detect and mitigate these kinds of attempts at manipulation, again, ensuring trust.

Dogs in alley slicing wires
Dogs hacking the interwebs with disinformation

Understanding LLMs

Another limitation of LLMs in terms of manipulation is they have trouble telling the truth from fiction, particularly when contextual cues may be important to know the difference. LLMs don’t understand context very well, especially subtle context, and thus can be easily manipulated to provide deceptive outputs through carefully crafted prompts or by exploiting the model’s underlying biases. By framing a question with a leading slant one can provoke varied responses, highlighting how AIs lack true comprehension and can be used to spread misinformation or even unintentionally biased perspectives. A self-professed cat-hater won’t hesitate in making an argument to get rid of cats entirely:

ChatGPT window about cats
Using ChatGPT for to confirm biases

It's clear when intentions are made obvious, but hidden biases can just as easily affect outputs. The ease of creating an argument to eliminate cats altogether means we, as users, need to maintain a critical eye towards Generative AI results. Without proper guardrails, trusting results from AI can lead us down dark roads.


Tools and Techniques to Identify Deception

One approach to reducing the potential for misinformation or falsehoods from AI involves bias detection tools, like Huggingface’s Evaluate library. This library of prompts can help identify toxicity, biased language against minorities, and other hurtful responses and compare measures between models. Other tools emphasize source verification, comparing LLM-generated content against databases of verified information, to identify potential biases. Cross-referencing information with credible sources is another important way to install factual knowledge to validate AI-generated content. Since the way we phrase our questions to LLMs can significantly influence the responses we get back, using neutral, objective language and avoiding leading questions can help elicit more impartial, factual responses. Finally, being upfront with users about the limitations of LLMs, including their potential for bias and inaccuracy, can help manage expectations and encourage critical thinking when engaging with AI-generated content. Disclaimers and user education are necessary to develop trust.


Staying Informed about AI Development

Another important safeguard that is on us users is to stay informed about the latest developments in AI research and ethical news. As more AI models are available to use and become more integrated into our lives, we need to make sure we understand their capabilities, limitations, and societal impacts. Places to find relevant information include academic journals like the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) and the IEEE, technology experts, and AI developers and researchers who specialize on the topic. Keep up with AI ethics and topics from non-profits like AI Ethics Journal and Algorithmic Justice League. Hopefully, in the future, information about the trustworthiness and potential biases of AI models will be easy for the public to understand and weigh.


Conclusions

As we use LLMs in our daily lives and more companies with proprietary models appear, awareness of the potential for deception and bias is increasingly important. Biases in training data, limitations with truthiness, and vulnerabilities like prompt poisoning can all lead to deceptive outputs, which can mislead users and propagate misinformation. Addressing these challenges requires technological measures, our critical thinking, and continual verification of information. As users, we must constantly assess the credibility of our AI tools, stay informed about the latest issues in AI and engage critically with technology to mitigate potential dangers. A critical human eye is necessary to make sure we are not deceived by our new technologies.



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